A popular drug Ampicillin is an effective antibiotic. Despite the fact that new drugs have appeared, it is still in demand among doctors and patients. This semi-synthetic penicillin-type antibiotic is effective for many bacteria, and it helps better than others for sepsis and purulent infection. Not everyone knows exactly what Ampicillin helps with, although its low price and availability in pharmacies make it one of the most purchased drugs. Many patients prescribe it themselves, which, of course, should not be done. The reception of Ampicillin should be strictly prescribed by a doctor who takes into account the patient's state of health and the characteristics of his disease. You need to know exactly what Ampicillin helps with not to cause the development of superinfection, insensitive to antibiotics.
Characteristics of the drug
This drug penicillin Ampicillin belongs to the group of semi-synthetic penicillins and has a wide spectrum of action. Ampicillin pills have been taken for many years, as it is active against most bacteria. Its main active substance effectively destroys the cell walls of microorganisms. Ampicillin suppresses metabolic processes in the membranes of their cells. Due to its influence, many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria die, as well as pathogens of some intestinal infections. However, there are also such microorganisms that secrete a special enzyme beta-lactamase. It destroys penicillin, and the drug is powerless to cure infections caused by such bacteria, such as Staphylococcus. However, it effectively treats various mixed infections, purulent infection, and sepsis.
Pharmacological action Ampicillin
Pharmacodynamics. Ampicillin suppresses the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which is why it has an antibacterial effect. The drug affects cocci microorganisms (staphylococci that do not form penicillinase, as well as streptococci, pneumococci, meningococci, gonococci) and most gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, enterobacteria of the genus Proteus, and others). Due to the action of penicillinase, Ampicillin is destroyed, so it is not effective for penicillinase-forming agents
Pharmacokinetics. The drug is rapidly absorbed into the blood and other body fluids and tissues. The drug Ampicillin is resistant to an acidic gastric environment. Ampicillin practically does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (the permeability increases with the meninges). It penetrates well through the placental barrier.
The drug Ampicillin is low-toxic, does not have the ability to accumulate in the body, so it can be taken in large doses for a long time.
What is Ampicillin used for?
This Ampicillin helps with the following diseases:
- bronchitis, pneumonia, and even a lung abscess;
- otitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, or pharyngitis;
- infections of the kidneys and gallbladder, it is especially effective for cystitis and urethritis;
- severe intestinal infections, including typhoid and salmonellosis;
- the drug is effective for purulent wounds, skin, and soft tissue infections, for example, erysipelas or dermatosis, postoperative inflammation;
- this is one of the few drugs that help with gonorrhea, chlamydia, and meningitis;
- Ampicillin treats various infections of the musculoskeletal system, rheumatism, arthritis, and osteomyelitis.
What else is Ampicillin prescribed for?
Ampicillin is effective for listeriosis and Proteus. The drug is also used as a preventive measure for endocarditis - inflammation of the heart muscle. Unlike other antibiotics of the penicillin group, this drug is very effective for pyogenic and hemolytic streptococci.
Method of reception and dosage
The drug is prescribed by a doctor. The pills are taken orally within 30 minutes before or 2 hours after a meal.
Adults and children over 14 years old take the standard single dose from 0.25 g to 1 g, the recommended daily dosage is 2-3 g, the maximum daily – 4 g. Doses are selected individually, considering the disease severity, localization of infection, and type of pathogen.
A standard daily dose for children from 6 to 14 years is 100 mg/kg. The calculated daily dosage is divided into 4-6 doses.
The course of treatment is determined individually for each patient, depending on the severity of the disease and the sensitivity of infectious microorganisms to Ampicillin, and can range from 7 days to 3 or more weeks.
Not all categories of patients are allowed to take the drug. The drug is prescribed with caution during pregnancy and lactation, and it is prescribed in the form of a parenteral solution for children at the age of 1 month. Contraindications prohibit the reception of the drug for its intended purpose:
- hypersensitivity to penicillin or beta-lactam antibiotics;
- liver function disorders;
- infectious mononucleosis, lymphocytic leukemia;
- children under six years of age (for taking pills and capsules).
- Special instructions
- During therapy, the following points should be taken into account:
- before starting treatment, it is necessary to exclude the presence of an allergic reaction to Ampicillin;
- during the therapeutic course, regular diagnostics of liver and kidney function, and the cellular composition of peripheral blood should be performed;
- the drug is prescribed in combination with desensitizing agents for patients with allergic diseases (hay fever, bronchial asthma, etc.);
- patients who perform potentially dangerous or demanding types of work (including driving a car) are advised to use caution when taking the drug;
- if there are functional disorders of the kidneys, it is necessary to adjust the dosage of the drug by reducing the single dose or increasing the time interval between doses;
- Ampicillin is prescribed to pregnant women only if the intended health benefits of the woman exceed the potential danger to the fetus;
- Ampicillin in low doses is detected in breast milk, so you should stop breastfeeding while taking the drug.